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ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-15

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ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-15

This is Part 15 of 35 containing 5 Questions (Q. 71 to 75) with detailed explanation as expected in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Latest Syllabus updated in 2011

Deep study of these 175 questions shall be of great help in getting success in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam

Q. 71: Is it helpful to execute the same set of tests continually?

Running the same set of tests continually will not continue to find new defects. Developers know that the test team always tests the boundaries of conditions, for example, so they will test these conditions before the software is delivered. This does not make defects elsewhere in the code less likely, so continuing to use the same test set will result

in decreasing effectiveness of the tests. Using other techniques will find different defects.

For example, a small change to software could be specifically tested and an additional set of tests performed, aimed at showing that no additional problems have been introduced (this is known as regression testing). However, the software may fail in production because the regression tests are no longer relevant to the requirements of the system or the test objectives. Any regression test set needs to change to reflect business needs, and what are now seen as the most important risks.

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Q. 72: What are the factors that determine the type of testing that is needed?

Different testing is necessary in different circumstances. A website where information can merely be viewed will be tested in a different way to an e-commerce site, where goods can be bought using credit/debit cards. We need to test an air traffic control system with more rigor than an application for calculating the length of a mortgage.

Risk can be a large factor in determining the type of testing that is needed. The higher the possibility of losses, the more we need to invest in testing the software before it is implemented.

For an e-commerce site, we should concentrate on security aspects. Is it possible to bypass the use of passwords? Can ‘payment’ be made with an invalid credit card, by entering excessive data into the card number? Security testing is an example of a specialist area, not appropriate for all applications. Such types of testing may require specialist staff and software tools.

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Q. 73: What are the different elements of fundamental test process?

The fundamental test process consists of five sequential parts that encompass all aspects of testing as described in the following figure:

1) Planning and control.

2) Analysis and design.

3) Implementation and execution.

4) Evaluating exit criteria and reporting.

5) Test closure activities.

Although the main activities are in a broad sequence, they are not undertaken in a rigid way. An earlier activity may need to be revisited. A defect found in test execution can sometimes be resolved by adding functionality that was originally not present (either missing in error, or the new facilities are needed to make the other part correct). The new features themselves have to be tested, so even though implementation and execution are in progress, the ‘earlier’ activity of analysis and design has to be performed for the new features.

We sometimes need to do two or more of the main activities in parallel. Time pressure can mean that we begin test execution before all tests have been designed.

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Q. 74: What is done during Test Planning and Control stage during the fundamental testing process?

Planning is determining what is going to be tested, and how this will be achieved. It is where we draw a map; how activities will be done; and who will do them. Test planning is also where we define the test completion criteria. Completion criteria are how we know when testing is finished.

Control, on the other hand, is what we do when the activities do not match up with the plans. It is the ongoing activity where we compare the progress against the plan. As progress takes place, we may need to adjust plans to meet the targets, if this is possible.

Therefore we need to undertake both planning and control throughout the testing activities. We plan at the outset, but as testing progresses, undertake monitoring and control activities (monitoring to measure what has happened, control to adjust future activities in the light of experience). Monitoring and control feed back into the continual activity of planning.

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Q. 75: What is done during Test Analysis and Design stage during the fundamental testing process?

Analysis and design are concerned with the fine detail of what to test (test conditions), and how to combine test conditions into test cases, so that a small number of test cases can cover as many of the test conditions as possible.

The analysis and design stage is the bridge between planning and test execution. It is looking backward to the planning (schedules, people, what is going to be tested) and forward to the execution activity (test expected results, what environment will be needed).

A part of the design process needs to consider the test data that will be required for the test conditions and test cases that have been drawn up.

Test design involves predicting how the software under test should behave in a given set of circumstances. Sometimes the expected outcome of a test is trivial: when ordering books from an online book retailer, for instance, under no circumstances should money be refunded to the customer's card without intervention from a supervisor. If we do not detail expected outcomes before starting test execution, there is a real danger that we will miss the one item of detail that is vital, but wrong.

The main points of this activity are:

1) Reviewing requirements, architecture, design, interface specifications and other parts, which collectively comprise the test basis.

2) Analyzing test items, the specification, behavior and structure to identify test conditions and test data required.

3) Designing the tests, including assigning priority.

4) Determining whether the requirements and the system are testable.

5) Detailing what the test environment should look like, and whether there are any infrastructure and tools required.

6) Highlighting the test data required for the test conditions and test cases.

7) Creating bi-directional traceability between test basis and test cases.

Part - 16 of the Crash Course - ISTQB Foundation Exam

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