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ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-16

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ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-16

This is Part 16 of 35 containing 5 Questions (Q. 76 to 80) with detailed explanation as expected in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Latest Syllabus updated in 2011

Deep study of these 175 questions shall be of great help in getting success in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam

Q. 76: What is done during Test Implementation and Execution stage during the fundamental testing process?

The test implementation and execution activity involves running tests, and this will include where necessary any set-up/tear-down activities for the testing. It will also involve checking the test environment before testing begins. Test execution is the most visible part of testing, but it is not possible without

other parts of the fundamental test process. It is not just about running tests. The most important tests need to be run first. How do we know what are the most important tests to run? This is determined during the planning stages, and refined as part of test design.

One important aspect undertaken at this stage is combining test cases into an overall run procedure, so that test time can be utilized efficiently. Here the logical ordering of tests is important so that, where possible, the outcome of one test creates the preconditions for one or more tests that are later in the execution sequence.

As tests are run, their outcome needs to be logged, and a comparison made between expected results and actual results. Whenever there is a discrepancy between the expected and actual results, this needs to be investigated. If necessary a test incident should be raised. Each incident requires investigation, although corrective action will not be necessary in every case.

When anything changes (software, data, installation procedures, user documentation, etc.), we need to do two kinds of testing on the software. First of all, tests should be run to make sure that the problem has been fixed. We also need to make sure that the changes have not broken the software elsewhere. These two types are usually called re-testing and regression testing, respectively. I

n re-testing we are looking in fine detail at the changed area of functionality, whereas regression testing should cover all the main functions to ensure that no unintended changes have occurred. On a financial system, we should include end of day/end of month/end of year processing, for example, in a regression test pack.

Test implementation and execution is where the most visible test activities are undertaken, and usually have the following parts:

1) Developing and prioritizing test cases, creating test data, writing test procedures and, optionally, preparing test harnesses and writing automated test scripts.

2) Collecting test cases into test suites, where tests can be run one after another for efficiency.

3) Checking the test environment set-up is correct.

4) Running test cases in the determined order. This can be manually or using test execution tools.

5) Keeping a log of testing activities, including the outcome (pass/fail) and the versions of software, data, tools and scripts, etc..

6) Comparing actual results with expected results.

7) Reporting discrepancies as incidents with as much information as possible, including if possible causal analysis (code defect, incorrect test specification, test data error or test execution error).

8) Where necessary, repeating test activities when changes have been made following incidents raised. This includes re-execution of a test that previously failed in order to confirm a fix (re-testing), execution of a corrected test and execution of previously passed tests to check that defects have not been introduced (regression testing).

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Q. 77: What is done during Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting stage during the fundamental testing process?

The exit criteria were defined during test planning and before test execution started.

At the end of test execution, the test manager checks to see if these have been met. If the criterion was that there would be 85 per cent statement coverage (i.e. 85 per cent of all executable statements have been executed and as a result of execution the figure is 75 per cent, there are two possible actions: change the exit criteria, or run more tests.

It is possible that even if the preset criteria were met, more tests would be required. Also, writing a test summary for stakeholders would say what was planned, what was achieved, highlight any differences and in particular things that were not tested.

The fourth stage of the fundamental test process, evaluating exit criteria, comprises of the following:

1) Checking whether the previously determined exit criteria have been met.

2) Determining if more tests are needed or if the specified exit criteria need amending.

3) Writing up the result of the testing activities for the business sponsors and other stakeholders.

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Q. 78: What is done during Test Closure stage during the fundamental testing process?

Testing at this stage has finished. Test closure activities concentrate on making sure that everything is tidied away, reports written, defects closed, and those defects deferred for another phase clearly seen to be as such.

At the end of testing, the test closure stage is composed of the following:

1) Ensuring that the documentation is in order; what has been delivered is defined (it may be more or less than originally planned), closing incidents and raising changes for future deliveries, documenting that the system has been accepted.

2) Closing down and archiving the test environment, test infrastructure and testware used.

3) Passing over testware to the maintenance team.

4) Writing down the lessons learned from this testing project for the future, and incorporating lessons to improve the testing process.

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Q. 79: What is the approach of test independence?

Testing can be more effective if it is not undertaken by the individuals who wrote the code, for the simple reason that the creator of anything (whether it is software or a work of art) has a special relationship with the created object. The nature of that relationship is such that flaws in the created object are rendered invisible to the creator.

For that reason it is important that someone other than the creator should test the object. This approach is called test independence. Following are the people who could test the software, listed in the order of increasing independence:

1) Those who wrote the code.

2) Members of the same development team.

3) Members of a different group (independent test team).

4) Members of a different company may be a testing consultancy company or the testing project is outsourced.

Of course independence comes at a price; it is much more expensive to use a testing consultancy than to test a program oneself.

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Q. 80: What are the code of ethics certified software testers are expected to follow?

Testers can have access to confidential or privileged information, and they are to treat any information with care and attention, and act responsibly to the owners of this information, employers and the wider public interest. Of course, anyone can test software, but the declaration of the code of conduct applies to those who have achieved software-testing certification.

The code of ethics applies to the following areas:

1) Public: Certified software testers shall consider the wider public interest in their actions.

2) Client and employer: Certified software testers shall act in the best interests of their client and employer (being consistent with the wider public interest).

3) Product: Certified software testers shall ensure that the deliverables they provide (for any products and systems they work on) meet the highest professional standards possible.

4) Judgement: Certified software testers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgement.

5) Management: Certified software test managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote and ethical approach to the management of software testing.

6) Profession:
Certified software testers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest.

7) Colleagues: Certified software testers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues, and promote cooperation with software developers.

8) Self: Certified software testers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession, and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession.

Part - 17 of the Crash Course - ISTQB Foundation Exam

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