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ISTQB Advanced Test Manager Exam Preparation-Part 7

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ISTQB Advanced Test Manager Exam Preparation (Part 7)

Prior to appearing for exam for ISTQB certification, it is wise to quickly brush up your knowledge by reviewing the following testing related terms that are extremely important from examination point of view.

Part 7 of 12

Q. 61: What is Control Flow Graphing?

Control flow graphs display the logic structure of software. The flow of logic through the program is charted. It is normally used only by Developers as it is a very low level form testing, often used in Component Testing.

It can be used to determine the number of test cases required to test the programs logic. It can also provide confidence that the detail of the logic in the code has been checked.

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Q. 62: What is Cyclomatic Complexity?

Cyclomatic Complexity is a software metric that is used to measure the complexity of a software program. Once we know now how complex the program is, we then know how easy it will be to test.

C = E – N + P

# C = Cyclomatic Complexity
# E = number of edges
# N = number of nodes
# P = number of components

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Q. 63: What are Lines of Code?

The most basic form of a complexity metric is the ‘Lines of Code’ metric, or ‘LOC’ metric. Its purpose like other complexity metrics is to estimate the amount of effort that will be required not only to develop such a program, but also assist in estimating how much effort will be required to test it.

In its simplest form we could use the LOC metric by literally counting the number of lines of code in the program.

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Q. 64: What is Data Flow Analysis?

The idea behind Data-flow Analysis is to work-out the dependencies between items of data that are used by a program. When a program is ran, it rarely runs in a sequential order i.e. starting at line 1 and finishing at line 100. What usually happens is that the dependencies of the data within the program will determine the order. Data-flow Analysis can be used to find ‘definitions’ that have no intervening ‘use’. Data-flow analysis is also used to detect variables that are ‘used’ after it has effectively been ‘killed’.

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Q. 65: What is Error Guessing?

Why can one Tester find more errors than another Tester in the same piece of software? More often than not this is down to a technique called ‘Error Guessing’. To be successful at Error Guessing, a certain level of knowledge and experience is required. A Tester can then make an educated guess at where potential problems may arise. This could be based on the Testers experience with a previous iteration of the software, or just a level of knowledge in that area of technology.

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Q. 66: What is Exploratory Testing?

This type of testing is normally governed by time. It consists of using tests based on a test chapter that contains test objectives. It is most effective when there are little or no specifications available. It should only really be used to assist with, or compliment a more formal approach. It can basically ensure that major functionality is working as expected without fully testing it.

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Q. 67: What is Ad-hoc Testing?

This type of testing is considered to be the most informal, and by many it is considered to be the least effective. Ad-hoc testing is simply making up the tests as you go along. Often, it is used when there is only a very small amount of time to test something. A common mistake to make with Ad-hoc testing is not documenting the tests performed and the test results. Even if this information is included, more often than not additional information is not logged such as, software versions, dates, test environment details etc.

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Q. 68: What is Random Testing?

A Tester normally selects test-input data from what is termed an ‘input domain’. Random Testing is simply when the Tester selects data from the input domain ‘randomly’. As you can tell, there is little structure involved in ‘Random Testing’. In order to avoid dealing with the above questions, a more structured Black-box Test Design could be implemented instead. However, using a random approach could save valuable time and resources if used in the right circumstances.

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Q. 69: What is Quality Assurance Standards?

A Quality Assurance (QA) standard simply specifies that testing should be performed.

Example: ISO 9000

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Q. 70: What is Industry Specific Standards?

An industry specific standard will detail exactly what level of testing is to be performed.Examples:

# Railway Signalling standard DO-178B
# Nuclear Industry standard
# MISRA guidelines for motor vehicle software
# Pharmaceutical standards

Part -8 of Key Fundamental Terms

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